God Has the Authority over Man
God is the ultimate authority, even while granting free will to man. To paraphrase A.W. Tozer, it is God’s will to give man free will. But God retains authority and power over man. A quote from Word Studies in the Greek New Testament Volume I is helpful here in dealing with this passage:
“A man may resist God’s will, but cannot maintain his resistance. The question means who can resist Him? Paul leaves the question unanswered, for there is no answer which a finite mind can either reason out nor understand, since it involves the sovereignty of God and the fact of man as a free moral agent.”
You will say to me then, “Why does He still find fault? For who has resisted His will?” But indeed, O man, who are you to reply against God? Will the thing formed say to him who formed it, “Why have you made me like this?” Does not the potter have power over the clay, from the same limp to make one vessel for honor and the other for dishonor? (Romans 9:19-21, emphasis added)
God Has the Authority to Cast People in to Hell
God is the ultimate authority, even in the eternal destination of the soul. God will allow man to make the choice of going to hell (see previous point).
But I will show you whom you should fear: Fear Him who, after He has killed, has power to cast into hell; yes, I say to you, fear Him! (Luke 12:5)
Time is in the Father’s Authority
God is the ultimate authority and that includes the dimension of time. The Father knows the past, present, and the future and His authority extends into each.
And He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has put in His authority. (Acts 1:7)
The Son Created both Angelic and Demonic Beings (Powers)
The Son has ultimate authority as Creator. The Son of God created all sub-authorities and retains authority over His creation. All things in the Greek manuscripts are preceded by a definite article, thus the all things. This is an important concept to grasp in our study of authority, especially as it relates to Jesus Christ. The whole universe of things was created by the Son of God – nothing exists outside the Godhead that was not created by God the Son giving Him authority over all these things. Heaven and earth are references to locality – no matter where the things are located Christ created them. Visible and invisible refers to where we find these things in relation to their dwelling place in space – no matter where they make their abode Christ created them and has authority over them as Creator.
Thrones, dominions, principalities, and powers refer to holy and fallen angels, Satan and his demons, and men and woman on earth. All of these were created by the Son of God and are subject to His authority.
For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. (Colossians 1:16)
Even Demonic Beings have Authority Structures
Satan and his dominions have an authoritative structure and authority can be delegated. We see in Scripture that authority can be delegated from higher positions to lower, and authority brings power to act in the name of the higher authority. All governments operate similarly. This is important to know because when we talk about the authority of Jesus Christ we are talking about an authority above Satan and his minions.
Now the beast (the Antichrist) which I saw was like a leopard, his feet were like the feet of a bear, and his mouth like the mouth of a lion. The dragon (Satan) gave him his power, his throne, and great authority. (Rev 13:2)